Computer Hardware - Basic


Computer is derived from a Latin word “computare” which means to “to calculate”, “to count”, “to sum up” or “to think together”. So, more precisely the word computer means a "device that performs computation".
A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. However, Computer cannot do anything without a Program called Operating System (Windows 7, Windows 8, Linux, and Ubuntu, etc.).
In computers, there are many components to manipulate data. The following are common.
Input device
·         Central Processing Unit
·         Internal memory or Device memory
·         Storage
·         Output device
Hardware and Software
Hardware is any part of the computer that has a physical structure, such as the keyboard, mouse and barcode reader, etc.
Software is a set of programmed instructions that tell the hardware what to do and how to do it. There are two types of software,

System Software: System Software is a collection of programs designed to operate the computer system.
E.g. Windows 7, Windows 8, Linux, etc.

Application Software: Application Software is designed for special needs.
E.g. Tally, MS Office, Adobe Photoshop, etc.
Computer Operation / Data Processing
Input: Accept data from users. This data is raw information.
Store: Store the data or instruction to the computer memory and retrieve it when they need it.
Process: Process the data using the instruction.
Output: Output or result is the processed data gave by the computer after the process.
Understanding Computer Parts
As we discussed above, the computer has different parts to manipulate data. The following devices are doing a different job for manipulating data.
Input Device
An input device allows you to send information to the computer or get information from the computer.
The CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. In a computer CPU is the main part. Simply, CPU is the brain of the computer.
Random Access Memory
RAM is a volatile memory (non-permanent) it will be cleared automatically when the computer is powered off or restart. RAM stores program data temporarily when the program run.
Hard Disk
This type of memory is also known as external memory or non-volatile. It is slower than the main memory. These are used for storing data permanently.
The motherboard is an electronic circuit board that allows the CPU to interact with other parts of the computer.
The computer has a different port for connecting input, output and other external devices such as speaker, printer, scanner, etc.

Serial Port: This is a gray color 9 pin connector. It mainly used to connect the modem, digital camera, and other external devices. Now day’s serial port replaced by USB.

USB (Universal Serial Bus): Now used to connect almost all peripheral devices to the computer. USB 1.1 transmits data at 1.5 Mb/s at low speed, 12 Mb/s at full speed. USB 2.0 transmits data at 480 Mb/s.

VGA Port: This port is used to connect the monitor. VGA (Video Graphical Array) is a 15 pin blue color port that provides an analog signal for monitor display.

Parallel Port: Most often used to connect a printer to the computer. 25-pin connector. Long and skinny, often pink in color. Transmits data at 50-100 Kb/s.
PS/2 Port: This port is used to connect the mouse and keyboard. PS/2 was developed by IBM.

Ethernet Port: This port is used for networking and fast internet connections. Data moves through them at speeds of either 10 megabits or 100 megabits or 1 gigabit.
Power Supply
Computer use SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply) for an uninterrupted power supply. It produces different DC voltages for different peripherals.
Topic Conclusion
In this post, we have learned about the basics of computer hardware and its functions for processing the data. 



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item Computer Hardware - Basic
Computer Hardware - Basic
A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data.
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